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For various reasons, Ukraine’s relationship to the Holocaust and the Jews has been overshadowed by the similar, but more striking situation in Germany and Poland.
They comprised a relatively large minority (in 1931, 639,000, or 9.3 percent), and anti-Semitism was widespread.4 During the postwar period, particularly after 1991, many of the remaining Jews emigrated, primarily to Israel.
According to the 2001 census, only about 80,000 Jews (0.2 percent of the total population) remained in all of Ukraine, and just 12,000—15,000 in what is now Western Ukraine.5 A rich culture, which through the centuries shaped parts of Ukraine and Poland, has almost entirely vanished or been forgotten.
Johan Dietsch concludes that the official image of Ukrainians as both heroes and victims does not allow other people to have suffered more than the Ukrain-ians or that the Ukrainians were accomplices in the extermination of the Jews in Ukraine.
However, Ukrainian history books, which address countries, depict the Holocaust more objectively as genocide specifically directed against the Jews and label it a purely European trauma.
This figure actually represents the largest number of victims in any country other than Poland, where the number of victims is estimated at 3.3 million.3 Holocaust victims included the Jews of Eastern Galicia, which the Soviet Union seized from Poland under the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
The Nazi racial ideology is not explained and the tragedy of the Jews is still overshadowed by the suffering of Ukrainians.